Hiking Safety 101
Wondering how to stay safe on your hikes?
You’re in the right place! In this guide, we will be covering the following:
- 25 must-know tips for safe hiking
- Advice on animal safety, sun safety, hydration, packing, and more
- Pre-trip planning, on-trail considerations, and post-hike checks
While the prime objective of any hiking trip is to have fun, staying safe is of even greater importance. There isn’t much fun, after all, in having our hiking experience curtailed by an injury or ailment, or culminating in a trip to the ER.
To help ensure you have an enjoyable hiking trip, we’ve put together a list of 25 hiking safety tips covering everything from pre-trip planning and clothing choices to animal safety and river crossings. With the know-how you gain below, you’ll be able to enjoy a safe, memorable, and fun hiking trip no matter where your adventures take you.
25 Must-Know Hiking Safety Tips
Before Your Hike
1. Know Before You Go
Before you set off on a hike, do plenty of research to get the lie of the land. Some of the things you want to check for are:
- Trail distance
- Elevation gain
- Sun exposure
- Exposure to drops
- Available water sources
- Potential hazards (avalanche, rockfall, river crossings, flash floods)
- Trail conditions (call ahead of time and bring crampons, snowshoes, or other traction devices if ice is expected)
- Location of nearest hospital (this could save someone’s life!)
2. Choose the Right Trail (and Know Your Limits)
Avoid biting off more than you can chew by realistically assessing how far you can hike in a given time frame. Be sure to factor in elevation gain and other variables like pack weight, altitude, and weather conditions, all of which could slow you down (and tire you out) significantly.
3. Wear the Right Clothing
The “right” clothing for any camping trip will depend on where you are in the world and the conditions on the day of your hike.
However, the weather gods love to add a little “spice” to our outdoor adventures with a spot of meteorological mischief, throwing in storms when the forecasts promise blue-sky days and skin-scalding sun when we’ve anticipated rain. This being so, come prepared for any eventuality and always pack rain gear unless a broad sample of forecasts predicts a cloud-free day.
4. Layer Up!
The layering system is now all but universally regarded as the best clothing strategy for outdoor activities. The reasons for this are simple. Wearing multiple layers allows your body to breathe whilst also keeping it warm and dry, which isn’t the case when wearing a single bulky garment. It also allows you to easily add or shed heat by removing layers as needed throughout your hike.
The layering system consists of three layers: a baselayer, a midlayer, and a shell. Each layer has its own specific purpose: the baselayer provides moisture management, wicking sweat away from your skin and transporting it to subsequent layers; the midlayer provides insulation; whilst the shell protects against the elements.
Simple, right? The components of this three-part system can also be chosen to suit conditions, so it’s applicable at all times and in all weathers. The important thing to note is that all layers must be breathable and high-wicking, otherwise, the system will fail.
5. Avoid Cotton Clothing
One fabric that you should avoid wearing at all costs is cotton. While cotton is a super-comfortable and highly breathable fabric, it wicks moisture about as well as your average sponge. It is, in fact, capable of holding up to twenty-five times its own weight in water!
Wearing soaked garments will be mightily uncomfortable but won’t, in itself, be too much of an issue health-wise when hiking in perfect conditions. In less-than-perfect conditions, however, it could lead to a dangerous lowering of your body’s core temperature, aka hypothermia.
The reason for this is that liquid cools your body at a far faster rate than air. So, a slight drop in temperatures or even stopping to eat lunch or help a stricken hiker could result in your sweat-soaked shirt or pants causing your core temperature to dangerously drop.
6. Wear the Right Footwear
As with clothing, this will depend on conditions and the type of trail you’re hiking.
Generally speaking, hiking boots are the best option for more rugged terrain because they provide good ankle support and better protection for your feet. In wet and/or cold weather, they’ll also help to keep your feet dry and warm.
Hiking shoes are a better option on mellower, more well-maintained trails and in hot conditions.
7. Pack the Essentials
Wherever and whenever you go hiking, always carry the ten essentials. Depending on the length of your hike and the conditions, you might have to tweak this list a little, but it serves as a great baseline packing list.
For more details, check out our guide to the ten essentials of hiking. For now, here’s a quick, at-a-glance overview:
- Navigation (map and compass)
- Hydration (adequate drinking water)
- Nutrition (the number of calories you think you’ll need for the day plus 15% extra just in case)
- Shelter (mainly for backpacking)
- Sun protection (suncream, a sunhat, and UPF 40-50+ clothing)
- Fire (matches or a lighter)
- Illumination (flashlight or headlamp)
- First aid kit (taking a first aid training course is highly recommended!)
- Insulation (clothing)
8. Two is One, One is None
An old army aphorism advises us that “two is one, one is none,” reminding us of the wisdom in bringing spares of essential gear.
You don’t want to weigh yourself down with too much kit, of course, but the weight penalty for carrying an extra map, compass, socks, waterproof matches, headlamp batteries, power bars/fruit bars, and gloves is negligible. If you’re heading on a multi-day hike, we also recommend carrying an extra day’s supply of food in case you are delayed for any reason.
9. Check the Forecast
Because weather forecasting isn’t an exact science, we always recommend bringing clothing that will keep you warm and dry in temps up to 10 degrees lower and with weather a little wetter than anticipated. It’s also wise to check forecasts from three or four sources – having a broader sample will reduce the risk of inaccuracy.
Finally, there’s no harm in calling the park ranger, forest ranger, or the national park service ahead of time to check on trail closures or any other weather hazards.
10. Make a Plan
Detailed planning might take some of the sense of adventure and discovery out of your hike, but there’s no harm in establishing a few checkpoints (and check-in times) to ensure you’re on the right track and making good time.
It’s also a good idea to have an emergency plan up your sleeve, identifying escape routes or possible shelters in case a storm sweeps in and you need to abandon your hike and/or take cover.
11. Leave a Note
Once you’ve made a plan, leave your hiking itinerary with a friend or family member at home, detailing where you’re going, where you’ll park your vehicle, which trail you plan on taking, and when they can expect you back.
Doing so will allow your contact to alert the relevant authorities if you don’t return and make it much easier to locate you in the event of any misadventures.
12. Make an Early Start
Hike early to avoid the heat and beat the crowds. You’ll make better progress, have a better time of things, have the views all to yourself, and reduce the risk of not making it “back to base” before dark.
A pulled muscle might not sound like the worst injury you might suffer on a hike. In some cases, however, it really could be.
Just imagine, you’re at the mid-way point on a 20-mile out-and-back hike and a high lunge up a step results in a pulled hamstring. Now the 3 hours you’d anticipated spending on that 10-mile return could easily be anything from 6–9 hours.
Alternatively, imagine setting off on a long-awaited hike, stoke levels through the roof, only to sprain your calf and have to bail on your adventure just a few minutes in.
To reduce the chance of the above occurring, spend ten minutes at the trailhead doing a few dynamic stretches before you set off. We recommend the downward dog, heel kicks, lunges, hip circles, and hamstring kicks.
While You Hike
14. Animal Safety
Bears, mountain lions, snakes, moose, cows, bulls, and scorpions are just a few examples of the dangerous wildlife that you might encounter on a hike – depending, of course, on where you are in the world and where your hiking trails take you.
Generally speaking, wild animals will scram if they spot or hear approaching hikers. This being so, try to make noise while you hike by chatting loudly, banging your hiking poles together, or using a bear bell.
If you have to cross a field with cows, make noise, walk quickly, don’t make eye contact with the cows, and give them a wide berth. Reroute if you spot calves or a bull.
If you’re in an area where snakes are present, wear tall boots and never step where you can’t see your feet. If you have trekking poles, tap these on the ground as you hike – many species of snakes have a poor sense of hearing, but they can sense vibrations in the earth and will most likely slither off as you approach.
If you’re hiking in bear country, carry a can of bear spray if permitted, seal scented items in scent-proof bags, make noise to alert bears to your presence, and divert course or turn back if you see a bear in the distance.
15. Multi-Purpose Trails
Multi-purpose trails are those shared by hikers, mountain bikers, and horse riders. Horses and fast-moving bikers are things not to be messed with, so here’s what to do to avoid a collision:
If you encounter a horse on the trail, give them a wide berth, avoid making any sudden movements or loud noises that might startle them, and shift onto the low side of the trail to let them pass.
If you encounter bikers, trail etiquette states that you technically have the right of way. However, if the biker is moving at speed, they are likely to lose control if forced to brake suddenly. As such, it only makes sense for the hiker to yield the right of way in most cases.
16. Use Poles
The benefits of using hiking poles are well-documented. Not only do they help improve balance and prevent falls, but they’re also great for powering up steep ascents, particularly useful on wet and icy trails, reduce impact on your ankle and knee joints, and are a great help when tackling steep descents and river crossings.
Our body’s metabolic need for water increases whenever we’re exposed to the elements and doing activities that have us working up a sweat, such as when hiking. If we don’t meet that need, we run the risk of dehydration, which can cause a wide range of symptoms. These include:
- Diminished mental capacity
- Confusion and disorientation
- Headache, fatigue, weakness, irritability, lightheadedness
- Dark, bright yellow, or smelly urine
Your body will need around 1 liter of water for every two hours you’re hiking, though numerous factors could see this number rise to closer to two liters – extreme heat, lots of ascent, hiking at higher elevations, and personal hydration needs are just a few.
Here are a few more tips to help you avoid dehydration:
- Monitor your fluid intake throughout the day
- Pack sports drinks that contain electrolytes and/or rehydration salts
- Bring salty snacks such as trail mix with salty nuts, veggie chips, or edamame
- Bring a water purification system so you can stock up on water from wild water sources
- Research your route to find out if there are any refilling points along the way
18. Treat Wild Water
Sourcing drinking water from wild sources like lakes, creeks, or rivers is often necessary on longer hikes. However, drinking that water without first filtering or purifying it could land you with a bad dose of water-borne illnesses such as giardia, cryptosporidium, encephalitis, and even cholera (not an exhaustive list).
The safest way to eliminate pathogens, bacteria, and viruses is to boil water you want to drink, but this takes a lot of time and would entail carrying a stove and pot. The best alternative is to use a water filter or purification tablets, some of which are very nearly as effective as boiling.
19. Cross Carefully
If it’s necessary to cross a stream or river, there are a few steps you can take to make doing so safer:
- Wear shoes or hiking boots for better grip and stability
- Use hiking poles or a sturdy stick for balance and support
- Face upstream
- Join hands with members of your hiking party
- Unbuckle the straps on your backpack so you can discard it if necessary
- Try to cross the river at its shallowest point
- If the river is swollen by rainfall, wait until the rain stops before crossing
20. Staying Safe in the Sun
Always carry sunscreen and, on bluebird days, be sure to wear head protection (a sun hat or baseball cap) and a long-sleeved shirt. Ideally, all items of your clothing should have a UPF rating of 40–50+.
If you’re backpacking, try to put in each day’s mileage in the early morning and late afternoon. When the sun is at its fiercest (usually noon to 3 or 4 pm), find shade and rest. This will reduce the risk of heat exhaustion and sunburn.
21. Stay on the Designated Trail
For your own safety and the welfare of the habitat, stick to marked trails only. Veering off-trail isn’t only one of the easiest ways to get lost, it can also cause erosion, damage fragile ecosystems, or disturb wildlife.
22. Stay Together
Keep your hiking party together by setting off (from the trailhead and rest points) at the same time and making the slowest member of your group the pacesetter. This may mean taking longer to reach your destination, but it also reduces the risk of someone getting lost and means someone will be there to help if any member of your team sustains an injury.
23. Turn Back
If you run into any hazards on the trail, run out of steam, or simply realize you might not make it back to your vehicle before dark or in reasonable time, don’t be too proud to call it a day and head home. The trail will still be there for another attempt and pushing on regardless could land you in trouble.
As we all know, most trail injuries occur on the way down and when you’re tired, and getting home in one piece should always be your number one priority.
After You Hike
24. Check for Ticks
Ticks’ infamy derives mainly from the ability of the deer tick to spread Lyme’s disease. There are, however, several types of ticks out there that can carry or cause a variety of other nasty illnesses, including alpha-gal, babesia, Ehrlichia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia.
After you hike, check your entire body, but especially at the backs of the knees, between the legs, the midriff, under your arms, and around your head and ears. Ticks in the larval or nymph stage can be minuscule, so use a phone light or flashlight and magnifying glass if your eyesight isn’t 20:20.
To minimize the risk of having to go through the above and the notoriously tricky process of removing ticks, wear long pants, avoid hiking through tall grass or brushy areas, tuck socks into your pants, and spray insect repellent on exposed skin and your clothing.
25. Inspect Your Gear
Discovering midway through a hike that some vital piece of gear is damaged or out of whack is no fun at all. While you could simply inspect your gear before you set off on your next hike, this will give you less time to repair or replace it. As such, be sure to give all of your kit a once-over the day after your hike.
Have a Safe Hike…
…with the above knowledge in your repertoire, we’re sure you will!
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