How to Pitch a Tent in Any Terrain

Kieran James Cunningham
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How to Pitch a Tent in Any Terrain

Looking for Tips on Pitching Tents?

You’re in the right place! In this guide, we will be covering the following:

    • How to pitch your tent on rocks
    • how to pitch your tent on sand
    • how to pitch your tent on snow

Sometimes, the terrain we find ourselves in when out wandering the wilds simply refuses to play ball by offering up a nice, flat, dry spot of land to pitch our tent.

So, what to do?

Pitching up on uneven, rocky, snowy, sandy, sodden, or even solid terrain is just as easy as doing so on the most pristine patch of tent-primed turf on the planet—all it takes is a little bit of know-how.

To that end, we’ve prepared a short guide to help you get your tent stakes in the ground, your guylines taut & your tent stable.

Pitch Your Tent in Regular Terrain 

Before we venture into the ins and outs of pitching your tent in testier terrain, let’s make sure we’ve got the baseline covered with a few more general observations about pitching in regular terrain.

The following applies to all types of tent, whether you’re using a two-pole A-frame, geodesic model, tunnel tent, or any of the other formats of tent out there.

1. Choose the flattest and driest spot you can find and clear away any debris

2. Lay out your groundsheet

3. Lay your tent over the groundsheet, ideally with the doors facing away from the wind to optimize ventilation and so the heads of the sleepers will be on the upside of any slope

4. In windy conditions, peg out two or three grommets/loops to ensure your tent doesn’t blow away

5. Assemble your tent poles and thread them through the pole sleeves

6. Peg out the rest of the tent body, ensuring the walls are taut and the tent floor crease-free

7. Attach and peg out the tent fly, using guy lines and the tensioner cinches in the corners to make sure the fabric is taut and not in contact with the tent body

8. Tuck any extra groundsheet fabric under the tent body to prevent water or condensation pooling in the material

Pitch a Tent In Snow

1. Invest in a set of snow stakes—standard tent pegs are all but useless in the white stuff.

2. Use a thicker groundsheet to minimize heat loss through the tent floor.

3. Make sure your would-be pitching spot is:

  • Far from the run-out path of avalanche-prone slopes
  • Not underneath any snow-laden tree branches—strong winds and the weight of the snow can cause rotten branches to fall.
  • Sheltered by natural features like trees, scrub, boulders, or hillocks
  • East-facing so as to catch the morning sun and warm up quicker
  • Not on ice… (probe with your walking poles or ice ax before pitching)

4. Stomp out a “footprint” for your tent to compact the snow and ensure you have a solid foundation

5. Stake out all guy lines to make your tent is as stable as possible. If you’re struggling with the stakes in softer snow, you can fill a few unused dry bags with snow or rocks and use these to weight the guy lines.

Pitch a Tent In Sand

1. Invest in 14-18cm sand/snow pegs

2. Carry extra dry bags and stuff sacks to use as sandbags

3. Level off your proposed pitch with your feet

4. Peg out the tent body, placing rocks on top of the pegs to keep them in place

5. Position the tent entrance downwind to prevent sand being blown into the tent

6. Fill your extra dry bags or stuff sacks with sand

7. Attach the dry bags/stuff sacks to the peg grommets, loops, or guylines in your rainfly, pull them taut, and cover them with sand to help keep them in place

8. Loop guy lines around any larger rocks you can find for added stability

Pitch a Tent on Rocks

1. Carry 8-10 lengths of 4/5mm accessory cord of varying lengths, ranging from 2 feet to 5 feet

2. Collect as many small stones (ideally roughly rectangular) and large stones as you have lengths of accessory cord

3. Tie the accessory cord to the grommets or peg loops in your tent body and rainfly

4. Tie a simple slip knot around the small stones and pull the cord taut

5. Place the large stone directly in front of the small stone to hold it in place

6. Alternatively, tie your cord and your guy lines around larger rocks with a trucker’s hitch and adjust the length until taut

Kieran James Cunningham

Kieran James Cunningham is a climber, mountaineer, and author who divides his time between the Italian Alps, the US, and his native Scotland.

He has climbed a handful of 6000ers in the Himalayas, 4000ers in the Alps, 14ers in the US, and loves nothing more than a good long-distance wander in the wilderness. He climbs when he should be writing, writes when he should be sleeping, has fun always.

Kieran has taught mountaineering, ice climbing, and single-pitch and multi-pitch rock climbing in a variety of contexts over the years and has led trekking and mountaineering expeditions in the Alps, Rockies, and UK. He is currently working towards qualifying as a Mountaineering and Climbing Instructor and International Mountain Leader.

Kieran’s book Climbing the Walls—an exploration of the mental health benefits of climbing, mountaineering, and the great outdoors—is scheduled for release by Simon & Schuster in April 2021.

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