There’s a Bubble in My Compass: Not an Issue? Or Time to Go to the Store?

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There’s a Bubble in My Compass: Not an Issue? Or Time to Go to the Store?

Having troubles with your compass?

You’re in the right place! In this guide, we will be covering the following:

    • What causes your compass to develop a small bubble?
    • Should you be worried if your compass had developed a bubble?
    • How to remove the air bubble

Probably the most commonly asked question about filled compasses is what the heck are those little bubbles doing inside the housing? 

The second and third questions normally go along the lines of are they an issue? and, if so, how do we get rid of them?

Below, we answer each of these questions with a short, sweet, straight-talking explainer.

Why do compass bubbles form?

Most compasses use some form of liquid inside the housing (usually kerosene, oil, or alcohol – only cheap liquid-filled compasses are filled with water) to reduce needle oscillations—that is, to stabilize and slow down the rate at which the compass’s magnetic needle moves so you can take a reading easily. The liquid also acts as a buffer that absorbs shocks caused by drops, bumps, and bangs.

Further reading: If your old compass has met its maker, then you’ll want to find a new one, and what better place to start than our guide to the “Best Compass for Hiking“.

However, certain conditions can cause bubbles to form in the liquid, namely cold ambient temperatures and pressure at high altitudes. Both of these conditions cause the compass oil inside the housing to contract, thereby leaving air bubbles in the unoccupied space.

If you are the observant type, you may well have noticed that your compass is bubble-free in summer and ‘bubbly,’ so to speak, when used in winter. This is also true of different times of day, with bubbles appearing more frequently in the morning, when temperatures are cooler, and then disappearing in the afternoon as the temperature rises and the fluid expands.

Likewise, at higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure changes can cause the compass’s oil to contract temporarily.

Are compass bubbles a problem?

Small bubbles have no influence on the accuracy of a compass and in most cases will disappear when the compass is returned to sea level and/or warmer temperatures. 

In fact, compasses are designed in such a way that the development of bubbles is actually both inevitable and desirable. The space created by an air bubble in cool conditions is a buffer, of sorts, that prevents the case from breaking when the oil expands in higher temperatures.

Best hiking compass featimage

So that’s that, huh?

Not quite – so long as the bubble is smaller than ¼ of an inch in diameter then there is no need to rush out to buy a new compass.

There are, however, cases in which a bubble can affect your compass’s performance.

If the bubble is larger than ¼ of an inch in diameter, then the chances are the compass’s base or housing has developed a leak. In this case, the accuracy of the compass will probably be compromised and we recommend returning the unit if under warranty or buying a new unit if not.

If unsure whether or not your compass has developed a leak, inspect the seal around the housing for traces of moisture or mineral residue. If either of these giveaway signs is in evidence, then we recommend returning the compass to the manufacturer or buying a new one.

How to fix “bubble compass”

As mentioned above, getting rid of bubbles in your compass could be as simple as returning it to warmer temps and sea level. To help this process along, you can place your compass on a window sill to warm in the sun for a few hours or, if out on the trail, place it in a pant or jacket pocket to allow it to be warmed up by your body heat.

If your compass develops an air bubble problem during the warranty period and the bubble doesn’t disappear at sea level and room temperature, however, most manufacturers will replace the compass with no questions asked. 

Kieran James Cunningham is a climber, mountaineer, and author who divides his time between the Italian Alps, the US, and his native Scotland.

He has climbed a handful of 6000ers in the Himalayas, 4000ers in the Alps, 14ers in the US, and loves nothing more than a good long-distance wander in the wilderness. He climbs when he should be writing, writes when he should be sleeping, has fun always.

Kieran has taught mountaineering, ice climbing, and single-pitch and multi-pitch rock climbing in a variety of contexts over the years and has led trekking and mountaineering expeditions in the Alps, Rockies, and UK. He is currently working towards qualifying as a Mountaineering and Climbing Instructor and International Mountain Leader.

Kieran’s book Climbing the Walls—an exploration of the mental health benefits of climbing, mountaineering, and the great outdoors—is scheduled for release by Simon & Schuster in April 2021.

2 thoughts on “There’s a Bubble in My Compass: Not an Issue? Or Time to Go to the Store?”

  1. How does a leak compromise accuracy? a leak creates a mess or if oil completely gone then it doesn’t buffer movement, but accuracy?

    Reply
    • If the leak results in there being insufficient liquid in the compass housing then the compass needle can stick – thus becoming leading to inaccurate measurements.

      Reply

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