Thru Hiking 101: Introductory Guide

Ready to make the leap from day or section hiking to thru-hiking? Learn how it’s done, and the pitfalls to avoid, in this comprehensive, straight-talking preparatory guide for first-time thru-hikers.

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The Definitive Guide To Long-Distance Hiking

Ready To Become A Thru-Hiker?

You’re in the right place! In this guide, we will be covering the following:

    • What is a thru hike?
    • The 3 classic thru-hikes attempted in the USA
    • The key challenges you face on a thru-hike
    • The backcountry skills you’ll need
    • How to plan for a thru-hike

Are you considering a thru-hike (“through-hike”)? Feeling ready for a transformative, physical, mental, and emotional experience spending an extended time in nature? Curious about what goes into the planning and execution of a multi-week, potentially multi-month trek?

Regardless of how or why you arrived here, rest assured you have found the right resource for all things thru hiking. In this post, we will give you first-hand insight into the planning, gear, and mindset necessary for completing a thru-hike.

We’ll also help identify popular routes, likely obstacles you may encounter along the way, and offer valuable insights into trail life gleaned straight from those who have been there before.

Do

  • Research your intended route and learn as much as you can from previous hikers
  • Do all the mental and physical preparation you can
  • Budget for your hike
  • Minimize the hiking gear you pack so that your pack is ultralight
  • Frequent checking for trail closures ahead of time and while en route

Don’t

  • Ignore your body on the trail
  • Forget to anticipate weather/temperature changes over a multiple-month trek
  • Hike someone else’s hike – know your goals and stick to them
  • Carry more than you need

What Is Thru Hiking?

In its simplest form,thru-hiking is a long-distance hike from one point to another requiring numerous weeks or months on the trail to successfully complete.

Group of hikers silhouette walking along a white snowy mountain
Thru-hiking takes day hiking to a whole new level over a number of days, weeks or even months

These hikes range anywhere from a couple of hundred miles to those that span over 2,000 miles from start to finish, as is the case with the famed Appalachian or Pacific Crest Trails. Section hiking is another lesser form that involves hiking sections of longer thru hiking trails.

Usually, a thru-hiker will average between 8-20 miles per day. Due to the higher mileage and extended period away from civilization, these longer treks require a considerable amount of planning – something we can help you with below.

​Further reading:

The Triple Crown Of Hiking In The US (And Beyond)

Amongst the seasoned thru-hiking community, three long-distance trails have emerged as the ultimate prize for long-distance hikers to attempt in the US.

They represent everything valued by a prospective thru-hiker: incredible terrain diversity, a culture unique to each individual trail, impressive overall mileage, and numerous challenges to overcome. Successful completion of any one of the three is a monumental accomplishment.

The ‘triple crown’, as it is affectionately known amongst the most accomplished of thru-hikers, consists of the Appalachian Trail (A.T.), the Pacific Crest Trail (P.C.T.), and the Continental Divide Trail (C.D.T.).

Pacific Crest Trail sign
Completing the A.T., P.C.T., and C.D.T. will gain you the accolade of achieving the thru-hiking ‘triple crown’

While many a backpacker dreams of completing just one, some spend their lives chasing the ultimate goal of successfully completing all three hikes. As you can imagine, the commitment and resources necessary to make such a large goal obtainable keep those who have achieved the ‘triple’ in very limited company.

Appalachian Trail

The Appalachian Trail is the longest hiking-only trail in the world and it rightfully serves as the first and only objective for many. Spanning from Georgia to Maine, it covers over 2,100 miles through the entire Appalachian Mountain Range.

It is popular as a first thru-hike, partly because of its notorious history and culture, but also because the trail is well marked, seldom ventures far from civilization, and features less elevation and weather change as compared to its western counterparts.

Trail marker for the Appalachian Trail
The A.T. is well signed and bursting with history and culture

While popular, the Appalachian Trail is a serious undertaking and not to be underestimated.

  • 2,190 miles
  • 464,500 ft. of elevation gain/loss
  • 14 states
  • 4-6 month commitment 

Pacific Crest Trail

The Pacific Crest Trail connects the United States’ Mexican and Canadian borders through the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges.

While less popular than the A.T., the PCT is generally considered a harder hike. It features higher mileage, significant elevation changes, greater expanses of wilderness, and seldom crosses a road, limiting hitchhike options into nearby towns. Snow-covered terrain is often encountered at higher elevations and adds another challenge with which to contend.

Pacific Crest Trail logo attached to a tree
The P.C.T. increases the level of difficulty and so not advised for first time thru-hiking
  • 2,650 miles
  • 900,000+ ft. of elevation gain/loss
  • Horseback and hiking permitted
  • California, Oregon, and Washington
  • 5-7 months average hike time

GoatManMike has an excellent guide on how to plan a PCT hike.

Continental Divide Trail

The granddaddy of thru-hikes, the C.D.T. will challenge even the hardiest of hikers. As with the other two, it is designated as a National Scenic Trail. It is, however, the only one to surpass 3,000 miles in length and features the highest elevations and most remote regions, while traversing through 5 states from Mexico to Canada along the Continental Divide.

Hiker on the Continental Divide Trail
The C.D.T. will take you from Mexico to Canada, and back again if you like!
  • 3,100 miles
  • Total elevation change: approx. 800,000 ft.
  • 5 states (New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho)
  • ​5-8 months expected for completion

Other Notable Trails

The Long Trail – Vermont, USA

Affectionately known by Vermonters as the footpath in the wilderness, this 272-mile footpath makes its way across the Green Mountains and Vermont’s highest peaks on its way to Canada.

John Muir Trail – California, USA

A wonderful adventure through the High Sierra backcountry featuring high elevations and a distinctly alpine feel to much of the hike. At 210 miles, this trail can be completed in a couple of weeks by most hikers.

John Muir Trail, California
The John Muir trail can be completed by most hikers in around 2 weeks

International Options

The West Highland Way – Scotland

The WHW is a great option for those wanting to experience the joy of an international thru-hike, without needing to quit their career and spend 6 months on the trail. 

The trail follows ancient roads as it meanders for 96 miles from northern Glasgow all the way into the Scottish Highlands. Most people complete the hike in around a week to ten days, although ultra runners have been known to tackle the trail’s entirety in less than 24 hours.

The West Highland Way, Scotland
A short week-long trail brimming with mountains and lochs

Camino De Santiago – Spain

Follow the footsteps of many before on this route rich with medieval European history. There are numerous routes from which to choose for your pilgrimage, all ending at Santiago de Compostela. This is a popular course and destination for many across the globe, attracting tens of thousands of visitors each year. 

Camino De Santiago trail, Spain
The Camino De Santiago trail in Spain is a treasure trove of Medieval history

Thru-Hike Challenges

Many prospective thru-hikers focus, almost exclusively, on the many challenges of making plans for their thru-hike (how do I get time away from my job/career, how much will it cost, what gear do I need, etc) and not enough on the challenges that will be present once they are actually on the thing. 

Recognizing and preparing for the physical, mental, and financial challenges you will endure is one of the most important steps you can take to ensure success.

Physical

Physical ailments and injuries are the leading cause of stopping a thru-hikers attempt short of their intended goal. Consider for a moment what you are asking of your body before beginning a long-distance, extended trek over ever-changing terrain.

You will be trekking 10+ miles every day through undulating, rocky, rooted, mountainous terrain, including stream crossings and scrambles. Your feet, ankles, calves, quads, and knees will be under constant stress and will likely require constant attention to keep healthy and capable of moving forward.

Man with boot off holding his swollen ankle beside a first aid kit
Take into consideration any medical needs you may have when doing your pre-trip prep

For most of your journey, you’ll also be carrying in excess of 25 pounds in your backpack, not eating as healthily as you would do at home, and exposed to a variety of trail conditions that can take a physical toll. 

Mental

Are you a good conversationalist? That’s good because, as a thru-hiker, you’ll be talking to yourself a whole lot! 

Seriously, the very nature of setting out on a hike like this will result in personal reflection and conflict like you have likely never experienced before. Without many of the distractions that exist off the trail, there’s a good chance you’ll find yourself analyzing every aspect of your character, relationships, and purpose while on this planet.

Backpacker wearing backpack looking out at forest filled mountains
Thru-hiking can have unexpected effects when it comes to your mental health

While the mental challenges are one of the greatest allures of long-distance hiking, making sure that you are ready for this journey of self-discovery will go a long way towards your emotional stability and happiness while on the trail. 

There has never been a thru-hiker who has completed a significant hike without a certain degree of mental toughness. Find the source of yours and get ready to use it. One of our favorite books on the topic is Carol Quinn’s “Thru-Hiking Will Break Your Heart.”

Financial

Budgeting is an important aspect of thru-hiking. While there are common guidelines for what it will cost ($2/mile) to complete a hike like this, it varies for every individual and their hiking style.

Your food choices on the trail, along with your comfort level in regards to lodging, are two of the biggest contributors to what your backpacking trip will cost. Here are the main areas where we find ourselves spending money on the trail:

Food:

  • Expect to purchase groceries every 10-14 days
  • Allow for multiple ‘splurge’ meals throughout your hike at restaurants in town

Lodging:

  • Most hikers prefer a comfortable bed and a warm shower at a hotel/hostel every 2- 3 weeks. Know beforehand how important this is to you and how it affects your overall budget

Gear:

  • Expect to make some gear changes as your hike progresses – new shoes, replacement hiking poles, etc.
Old hiking boots covered in mud
Your gears shelf life is going to be much shorter as a thru-hiker as compared to the weekend hiker

Planning A Long-Distance Hike

Selecting A Route

Research everything you can find (there’s a lot) on a given hike to determine whether it will be a good fit for you. 

Also, make sure to match your intended route and expected pace to your personal goals and available time commitment. If you know that 5-7 months in nature is what you’re ultimately seeking, don’t select a thru-hike that takes 1-2 months to finish. This may leave you with hiker hunger and feeling unfulfilled.

Also, be realistic about your pace after you’ve selected a route. Look at the average daily mileage of those that have completed that trail and be honest with your experience and fitness level.

When planning your hike, break it down into sections and get to know each section in detail before deciding if this is the hike for you. 

Maps And Compass

While most long-distance trails in the US and elsewhere are waymarked, don’t be tempted to leave home without a map and compass and the ability required to use them. 

Woman reading a map in front of a forest
When thru-hiking in remote areas its sensible to have a paper backup to any navigational tech you have

Training

Your body will begin to condition itself to daily hiking within the first week or two of your thru-hike. Jumpstart this process by completing several, smaller hikes, preferably with your full pack, in the 6 months leading up to your hiking objective. This can be a great way to condition your body while also identifying key gear changes that need to be made before you start.

Resupply Logistics

A significant portion of your time planning will be in addressing the ways you plan to resupply gear and/or food throughout your hike. 

Carrying a few extra pounds of pack weight may not matter much on a backpacking trip lasting 2-4 days, but for someone walking hundreds of miles over many weeks, it could make the difference between success and failure. In addition to packing effectively, thru-hikers must coordinate their plan for replenishing food throughout their intended route.

backpacker walking along trail near Banff Canada
Extra kit may feel essential over a number of days but over weeks or months it may feel overkill

It is not reasonable to carry a food supply that will last much more than 7-10 days. As a result, most thru and section hikers will need to identify several resupply stops near the trail (towns, grocery stores, post offices) where they might be able to refill their food inventory, before continuing along to the next destination. 

This creates an entirely new level of planning and logistical coordination with which the majority of backpackers are unfamiliar.

Here are some common strategies:

Shipping a Pre-Packed Resupply Box to Yourself

Many hikers will schedule boxes filled with gear and/or their favorite food to arrive at post office locations along the trail (usually towns nearby), who will then hold the box until they arrive.

Backpacking stove and backpacking meals outside tent
Mailing yourself care packages ensures you can get exactly what you want when out on the trail © MyOpenCountry 2021

This is the only way to guarantee that you’ll have exactly what you want and you’ll never have to experience the disappointment of hiking 75 miles to the next grocery store only to discover that they don’t carry your favorite energy bar or chocolate.

Buying Groceries

More experienced hikers tend to forego the cost and extra planning necessary for shipping multiple boxes in favor of just buying groceries along the way. This is a great way to keep costs down and adapt your menu to how you’re feeling in the moment.

Warning: Buying groceries immediately after hiking 100’s of miles is a dangerous endeavor. Stick to your budget and remember that you will have to carry everything you buy.

Friends/Family Care Packages

Some hikers will coordinate for family members to meet them at critical resupply points. Others will leave post office addresses and their planned itineraries with friends who can then surprise them with food and other personal effects. The anticipation of what might be waiting at the next post office is enough to get thru-hikers through many a bad day.

Food And Water

Some serious thru-hikers will calculate daily caloric intake when planning menus for their time on the trail. At the very least, you should have a solid understanding of what makes for a good backpacking meal plan.

You will also want to have with you a way to filter and/or treat water that you collect during your hike. While some hikers choose not to bring filters, purification tablets, or sterilizing pens, we wouldn’t recommend it. Our favorites are purification tablets by brands like Aquatabs, which are lightweight, effective, and low-cost. 

If hiking in arid terrain (on the Arizona Trail or Hayduke Trail, for example), be sure to identify every wild water source along the route and mark them on your map before setting off.

Gear Considerations

Minimize. Minimize. Minimize. The importance of keeping gear weight to a minimum on a thru-hike cannot be stressed enough. Lightweight backpacking has numerous benefits, even for shorter backpacking trips. However, long-distance journeys are where the minimalist mindset really pays off. 

Critique every piece of gear you plan to bring and only keep it in your pack if it’s absolutely necessary.

Backpack Strategy

There are two schools of thought regarding the best backpacking pack to bring for a long-distance hike. Comfort-oriented packs, like popular versions from Osprey, include multiple straps, attachment points, integrated frames and thick padding where it’s needed. These packs maximize organizational potential and strap comfort, however, they usually weigh 3-5 lbs.

Dedicated minimalists, on the other hand, will look for streamlined packs such as the Hyperlite Mountain Gear 2400 Southwest Pack that forego the ‘bells and whistles’ seen in Osprey packs and instead feature a simple, ultralight design.

Shelter

There are numerous shelter options available. Generally, tarps or hammocks will be the lightest, with tents providing the most privacy and protection from the elements.

Ultralight tents are a great way to reduce weight on the trail but often lack the durability needed for long-term travel in the backcountry. Whichever type of shelter you bring, use a footprint for greater protection and carry repair patches for potential tears.

Trekking Poles

These are not an item to skimp on when accumulating gear for a thru-hike. A quality set of hiking poles, and the skills on how to use them properly, will increase your chances of a successful hike.

Woman with trekking poles hiking downhill over rocky terrain
Trekking poles are essential for thru-hiking so make sure you can use them properly before you set off

Thru-Hiker Culture, Community & Trail Speak

Culture And Community

Once you set out on your first thru-hike, you will be earning acceptance into one of the most unique and eclectic communities found within the outdoor world. 

Thru-hikers forever share an unspoken bond of understanding and appreciation for time spent in the wild. This bond is enough to transcend cultural and socioeconomic differences and it’s capable of making people you didn’t even know weeks earlier feel like lifelong friends.

This community’s reach, however, extends far beyond the bond shared amongst hikers out on the trail. In fact, there are towns along every major long-distance trail that have become so infatuated with the stories and the people that hike through them, that their very identity is woven into the trail’s existence.

“Trail angels” from these towns commonly seek out ways to help hikers. Some even cater their businesses towards them, only expecting an honest story or a chance to relive their own hiking memories in exchange for goods or services. Most thru-hikers would agree that once this community takes a hold of you, there’s really no letting it go.

Trail Names

You may have noticed by now that several thru-hikers choose to forego their given birth name while on the trail, in favor of something a bit more creative. 

Trail sign in Texas
Sense a new lease of life when thru-hiking? Maybe a trail name is just what you need too

Whether it’s a commitment to shedding a previous persona or just a fun way to remember everyone you meet, this decision is entirely yours. Some choose their trail name before they start hiking, while others let it develop as their hike progresses.

Trail Speak

If you’re planning to join this community as a new thru-hiker, you better learn to speak the language, right? Don’t worry, we’ve got you covered with a trail dictionary of sorts, featuring the latest lingo to help you fit right in. 

Common Trail Lingo

  • Trail magic: a surprise item, often food or a cold drink, that appears on the trail
  • Trail angel: Someone who helps a thru-hiker in an impactful way – feeding them a meal, housing them for a night, or giving them a ride into town
  • Cowboy camping: no tent, just throw out your pad and sleeping bag under the stars
  • NOBO: A hiker heading northbound on the trail
  • SOBO: One heading in a southbound direction
  • Flip-Flop: A strategy where a hiker completes half of the trail, gets a ride to the other end, and then starts hiking back to where they stopped to complete the full thru-hike
  • LNT: used when referring to Leave No Trace Principles
  • Grey water: dishwater
  • Zero day: A rest day, where no mileage is covered
  • Slackpacking: Hiking without a pack, commonly seen when a motorist offers to transport a hiker’s pack to a trail intersection farther along so that they can enjoy a day hiking with no pack
  • Yo-Yoing: Completing one full thru-hike of the entire trail, turning around and heading in the opposite direction for another. Craziness level = high!
  • The Green Tunnel: A way used to describe the A.T. because of its long stretches through eastern forests

Well, It’s Time to get on the Trail!

For anyone looking to level up from their usual day hikes or weekend backpacking then thru-hiking is the way to go. Aside from the physical, financial and logistical planning and prep you need to do before you start you will also need to cultivate the right mindset too. Thru-hiking is definitely not for the faint-hearted yet for those up for the challenge of multi-week, or even multiple months on the trail, it is ultimately super rewarding.

So, how did you like our post? If you have any questions, drop us a line in the comments box below. And if you’d like to share this article with any thru-hiking curious friends, share away!

Last update on 2022-12-06 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

Chris Avatar

In addition to his role as an outdoor adventure guide, Chris Olson seeks to share his passion for, and experience in, the great outdoors through writing and photography. He has backpacked, hiked, climbed, kayaked, biked, and skied throughout much of the eastern United States, as well as iconic locations such as Zion National Park, Newfoundland, and Puerto Rico.

His passion for fresh air, and beautiful places, reminds us all of the simple joys to be had from spending time outside!

1 thought on “Thru Hiking 101: Introductory Guide”

  1. This description about long distance backpacking is pretty good. In regards to the A.T. and resupply hikers usually stop every 3 or 4 days. It can be a tad longer if there are no close options. The same goes for lodging. Many hikers usually stop at a hostel or hotel about once a week for a shower, bed, and laundry and resupply all at the same time. When temps get warmer many hikers will opt to just bathe in passing creeks and only venture into town for resupply. Newbies, when at first planning, believe that they will spend all their time in the woods but in reality they end up forming friendships with other hikers and spend more and more time in hostels and in towns. This also ends up increasing the budget a bit. I usually tell new hikers to budget about $1000-$1500 (high end) per month. So many things can change along the way and the trail gets more expensive as one heads north. The trail also gets closer to civilization as one heads north so hikers like to stop more frequently spending more. Except when one reaches New England of course.

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